The issue of climate change has been gaining prominence in international discussions and fighting it is one of the main challenges facing humankind today. The negative impact caused by climate change is a critical factor for business continuity and competitiveness. For large organizations with complex and geographically dispersed value chains, climate risk can drastically affect the business directly and indirectly, either through physical impacts on productive units or through disruptions of logistics chains, for example. For small companies, climate risk may be even more relevant, since the range of solutions, strategies and adaptation measures may be too narrow or too costly.

The rise in mean sea level can affect coastal cities, causing damages to the port facilities, or even with the increased intensity and frequency of the precipitation, can cause the increased presence of debris in the highways, roads and pavements, as well as landslides and floods.

Changes in land temperature tend to impact transport infrastructure, such as bridges and rails, and aggravate the deterioration of roads and railways, requiring more frequent maintenance.

Transport costs will increase with natural disasters and new routes would be sought for disposal of products, disrupting traditional supply chains. The expansion of extreme events can also affect the passage through locking systems and increase the costs of maintaining vessels, cars and trains, thus resulting in longer delays and higher costs.

EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL DISCUSSIONS

The recent history of international initiatives in the area of climate change includes the following events and agreements:

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The Swedish Academy of Sciences organizes a Study of Man's Impact on Climate-SMIC (reprinted by MIT Press).

The Stockholm Conference of 1972 (United Nations Conference on Man and the Environment) resulted in the creation of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), which, in turn, influenced countries in establishing bodies of various natures in their executive structures in charge of environmental issues.

Creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to rationalize an assessment of the state of knowledge on climate change.

Resolution of the UN General Assembly on climate protection for future generations and negotiating mandate of a Convention on Climate Change.

Adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its opening to signatures on the occasion of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio-92.

The Convention entries into force upon ratification by a sufficient number of Parties.

Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol and its opening to signatures.
The scheme is characterized by the establishment of Quantitative Emissions Limitation and Reduction Objectives (QELROS) for members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) plus the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, totaling an average global GHG reduction of 5.2% below 1990 emissions. Non-Annex I Parties retain the general commitments contained in the Convention, which include the development of national emission mitigation programs.

Rio+10, a UN conference to advance the commitments of ECO-92 takes place in Johannesburg, South Africa.

The Kyoto Protocol entries into force, upon ratification by a sufficient number of Parties. Hurricane Katrina devastates American states and catches the world's attention to weather events.

The IPCC, a UN panel composed of scientists, points to evidence that warming is caused by human actions.

Rio+20, the United Nations conference that prepared the report: "the future we want", which sets goals for sustainable development takes place in Rio de Janeiro. The text conducted by Brazil is a consensus among almost 200 countries.

Following the conference and intense negotiations, on December 12, the ministers of 195 countries approved the Paris Agreement, a legally binding document of the United Nations (obliging the States to act according to the contract or it will face legal consequences), and it sets up the universal fight against global warming.